{"id":2781706780736,"title":"10Micron GM2000 HPS \"Monolith\" GoTo Mount","handle":"10micron-gm2000-hps-monolith-mount","description":"\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e10Micron GM2000HPS II Monolithic Go-To Mount \u003c\/strong\u003e\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003e(\u003cstrong\u003eH\u003c\/strong\u003eigh\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eP\u003c\/strong\u003erecision and\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eS\u003c\/strong\u003epeed) \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eHPS control system utilizes internal absolute encoders on both axis along with a tightly integrated hardware and firmware control system to permit real-world sub arc-second tracking accuracy\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003e\u0026lt;20 arc sec pointing accuracy and \u0026lt;1 arc sec tracking accuracy (0.6\" RMS) for long exposure\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003e\u003cem\u003eunguided\u003c\/em\u003e\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003eimaging at long focal lengths\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eUp to 15 deg\/sec slewing\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003e\u003cspan\u003eThe HPS control system, hand controller w\/professional microswitches, and sophisticated internal pointing modelling enable full standalone operation without the use of an external computer\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eWiFi enabled\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eFully adjustable clutches on both axes\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eClean Cabling: Single all-in-one mount cable.\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003ePrecise and elegantly finished mechanics\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003e\u003cspan\u003ePerfect as an un-guided imaging platform for fully instrumented refractors up to 7\" and Cassegrains up to 14\" (ie, CDK14, RASA36).\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003e\u003cspan\u003eObservatory precision for permanent setups (73 lb).\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003e\u003cspan\u003eUsable instrument capacity of 110 lbs\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003c\/ul\u003e\n\u003ch5\u003eDescription\u003c\/h5\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe GM2000HPS Monolith German Equatorial Go-To Mount delivers the same phenomenal accuracy, performance, features, and build quality as it's larger siblings, in a compact highly portable 73 lb package.  The HPS (High Precision and Speed) absolute encoders and fully integrated standalone control system deliver a level of accuracy and performance unlike any other mounting in its class.  The monolithic one-piece mount head  is perfect as a permanent platform for general astronomy and (\u003cem\u003eun-guided\u003c\/em\u003e) imaging with fully instrumented refractors up to 7\" and Cassegrains up to 14\".\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWith a conservative usable instrument capacity of 110 lbs, the GM2000HPS delivers rigidity, accuracy, and performance that belie its size, exceeding mounts that are physically larger and heavier.  The state of the art bronze worm gear drive system and well-engineered axis mechanics deliver high rigidity, long term reliability and life, along with the phenomenal HPS tracking and pointing precision demanded by the most discriminating imagers.  \u003cspan\u003eThe build quality, precision of the machining, and the level of fit and finish are truly exceptional.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eA large range of tripods, Piers, mounting plates, and accessories are available from 10Micron and Baader Planetarium.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003ch5\u003eWhat is HPS?\u003c\/h5\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eHPS\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003cspan\u003e means “High Precision and Speed” and is the name for the series of astronomical mounts by 10micron. The HPS system features \u003c\/span\u003etwo high-precision absolute encoders that are integrated directly into each axis\u003cspan\u003e to ensure unprecedented pointing and tracking accuracy.  High performance servo motors and drivers enable high speed pointing.  The HPS system was architected from the ground-up for precision pointing and control.  The encoders were not simply added onto an existing mount and its control system.  The tightly integrated hardware and on-board firmware architecture results in total system response and accuracy that are superior to mount systems that require an external PC for pointing modelling and control.  Simply put - the HPS system results in improved pointing and significantly lower RMS tracking errors than competing mounts.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cspan\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan\u003eThis radical performance improvement over previous technology enables a radical change in the workflow of observers and astroimagers. In the vast majority of applications, including long exposure deep-sky imaging, the need for autoguiding is eliminated. The pointing accuracy allows you to be confident that, once the mount is properly setup, objects will be centered in the smallest field of view, even with a mobile setup on a remote meadow in the mountains. Furthermore, the internal electronics allows the mount to do almost everything \u003c\/span\u003ewithout the need for an external PC\u003cspan\u003e.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eEncoder System\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cspan\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan\u003eThe \u003cem\u003eabsolute\u003c\/em\u003e encoders provide high-accuracy, sub-arcsecond feedback to the motion of the mount. The absolute encoders render the axes “live” and free to react also to any external forces like wind and vibrations or accidental contact. Furthermore, this feedback is provided regardless of any zeroing or homing procedure.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan\u003e\u003cbr\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cspan\u003eThis means that the electronics will always know the position of the mount. You may move the mount around with the clutches unlocked and the electronics powered off, lock the clutches in any position and switch on the mount: the electronics will know where the telescope is looking. You may effectively use the mount as a Dobsonian telescope with manual pointing, retaining the full, sub- arcsecond accuracy of the encoders.  This equates to ease of use when operating in the field, since the setup procedure is much faster.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eHPS enables the GM2000HPS is able to deliver \u0026lt;1 arcsec (peak-peak) tracking and 20arcsec pointing accuracy. The accuracy and response of the HPS system gives the imager a powerful tool that enables un-guided long exposure images.  Never before has this level of accuracy been available to the amateur, and at such affordable prices.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cimg src=\"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0076\/7963\/9616\/files\/HPS_tracking_curve_med_large.jpg?v=1548882987\" alt=\"\"\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWith regard to the\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003eright ascension axis, virtually all the mechanical error from the reduction gearing is eliminated. Not only the so-called “Periodic Error”, which includes the periodic irregularities due to imperfection in the manufacturing and assembling of the worm, but also the non-periodic errors due to imperfections in the wormwheel, bearings, belts and other mechanical elements.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWith regard to the\u003cstrong\u003e\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/strong\u003edeclination axis, it may seem that the encoder system is less important, since there is no sidereal tracking motion. The reality is that the declination axis is critical to sidereal tracking. If you want to compensate for refraction, telescope, flexure and so on, you will have to move the declination axis at very small speeds in very small amounts. Furthermore, while the right ascension axis works always at the same speed (plus or minus small corrections), the declination axis works always at near-zero speeds, with the occasional inversion of the direction of motion. This means that mechanical backlash, belt flexure and friction forces show in the declination axis, and you can’t count on any “Periodic Error Correction” to compensate for them. Tricks for minimizing the effect of these forces in traditional mounts require having very small preload on the worm, with the risk of uncontrolled motion when the telescope is subjected to even small external forces, because of the disengaging of the worm from the wormwheel; painstakingly calibrating software backlash compensation procedures; manually adjusting the meshing of gears. Or, maybe, introducing intentionally small alignment errors, to force autoguide corrections always in the same direction. So, having an encoder mounted directly on-axis is at least as important in declination as in right ascension.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eMount Modelling\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe task of accurately pointing and tracking astronomical objects requires that the mount fully model all aspects of location, sky, and mechanics.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eModelling the orientation of the mount with respect to Earth\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eModelling the orientation of the telescope with respect to the mount.\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eModelling the errors of the mechanical system with respect to an “ideal” one.\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eModelling the influence of the atmosphere on the path of light rays.\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eModelling the orientation of Earth.\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eModelling the motion of astronomical objects themselves.\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003c\/ul\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eIn order to obtain the\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003esub-arcsecond tracking accuracy of the HPS mounts, all of this must be taken into consideration. Furthermore, many “subtle” effects begin to show, and they need special attention.  The HPS system takes modelling to another level than other mounts that use external PC pointing models.  HPS performs the modelling and stores the model in the internal control system of the mount.  In this way, the control system is able to provide rapid response and control of the mount, as well as for standalone operation.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eAlignment\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe quick alignment routines and highly reliable standalone operation enable rapid setup for a truly portable and efficient system (NO PC required for mount alignment and control!). With a mount head weight of only 43 lbs and its compact design, the GM2000HPS takes little effort to transport and set up. When outfitted as a complete package with its rock solid Centaurus II tripod and included accessories and fitted transport cases, the GM2000HPS becomes the ultimate turnkey highly-portable mounting sytem.  Its single all-in-one cable avoids the tangle of RA and DEC motor\/power cables that most other mounts require.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eControl System\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe sophisticated control system and belt driven brushless F.I.S. AC servomotors deliver whisper-quiet fast slews with high pointing precision and tracking.   The slew speed of up to 15 degrees\/second is 3x the speed of most other GoTo mounts, enabling lightning fast slews and precision tracking of satellites (the satellite tracking function is already embedded into the control system).\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan\u003eFurthermore, it helps to reduce loss of time in research application, increasing the amount of data that can be obtained in the often short observing nights.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe integrated control system also includes stand-alone operation through use of its ergonomic handpad, freeing the user from the requirement of having to always use an auxiliary PC to control the instrument.  Through the handpad, the stand-alone user can access all of the many integrated functions including; full Object Database, High-Precision Polar Alignment, Orthogonality Correction, Periodic Error Correction, as well as a Multi-Star Alignment which models and compensates for telescope pointing errors.  A GPS module is optionally available.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eEach mount is thoroughly tested as a system to ensure that its performance, accuracy, and quality meet the 10 Micron standards.  The engineering, design, and build quality of the GM2000HPS are unlike any other mounting in the world.  The precision of the machining, quality of the components, and the level of fit and finish are breathtaking.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eWhy Not Autoguding?\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cspan\u003eAutoguiding seems simpler… for the mount manufacturer. For the user, autoguiding means additional trouble. In case you use an external guider scope, it means that you can’t compensate for all flexures between the two instruments. And, you have additional, heavy equipment. In the case where you use a dedicated guider camera, it means additional cabling, software installation and setup. In any case, it means additional trouble searching for suitable guide stars, looking for customized guiding software parameters, calibration, and glitches between the guider\/mount\/PC. HPS mounts can be aligned to bright stars during twilight, then every second of darkness can be used for imaging. Furthermore, autoguiding is not always possible. The typical situation is imaging a faint, fast-moving comet. Anyway, if you still want \/ need autoguiding, HPS mounts provide a standard ST4 port, as well as all the usual settings and controls for use by remote software.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003ch5\u003eFeatures\u003c\/h5\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eQuality:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eAll the features and performance of the 10Micron mounts would be worthless without matching quality.  Each mount is thoroughly tested as a system to ensure that its performance, accuracy, and quality meet the 10 Micron standards.  The engineering, design, and build quality of the GM2000HPS are truly world-class.  The precision of the machining, quality of the components, and the level of fit and finish are exceptional and will satisfy the most critical user.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003ePrecision:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eThe HPS mounts were \u003cspan color=\"#111111\"\u003edeveloped at 10Micron by a team of professional engineers with decades of experience in the design and in-house production of precision machinery for the machine tool industry in Europe.  Each mounting is fully machined and assembled in-house at 10Micron's production facility in Italy.  As machining experts, 10Micron is able to consistently produce a level of precision that is unique in astronomy. \u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cspan color=\"#111111\"\u003eIn order to deliver the absolute highest accuracy and rigidity, in every mount produced, all critical parts of the mounting are machined as single pieces from solid plate or bar stock.  No screwed-together or crude cast structures are used.  The quality of machining and fabrication is evident in every part of the mounting, inside and out.  Part-to-part fit and matching is superb and machined edges are fully radiused and blended for a functional and aesthetically pleasing look.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e\u003cspan color=\"#111111\"\u003eFit and Finish:\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cspan color=\"#111111\"\u003eThe fit and finish \u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan color=\"#111111\"\u003eof every part is given close scrutiny.  All external surfaces of the mount are hand finished through a time consuming process to eliminate tooling marks, swirls, and sharp edges.  This process results in an exquisite satin finish that gives a beautiful and consistent look part-to-part, and serves to hide any smudges or marks that inevitably result from normal use and handling.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cspan color=\"#111111\"\u003eAfter surface finishing, the complete set of parts are hard anodized together in one batch, in order to provide high consistency of color part-to-part.  The hardness of the anodized surface resists wear and chipping, unlike paint.  The end result of all this careful finishing is a mounting that is as breathtaking to look at as it is to use.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eCapacity:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eMount capacity is often misunderstood, and typically implied to be primarily a function of gear size.  While most mountings (even small ones) can physically support and drive very large loads without failure, capacity is determined first and foremost by the rigidity of a mounting.  Rigidity is simply the 'springiness' that you feel (and see at the eyepiece) when pressing on the telescope or against its focuser.  It is easy to quickly judge the rigidity of a mounting simply by pressing against the telescope's focuser in each direction and noting how much a star shifts in the eyepiece.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eUnfortunately, it is not really possible to simply compare mountings on the basis of gear size, physical size, weight, or appearance.  Many unseen elements are primary contributors to a mount's performance.  The primary elements that contribute to rigidity (capacity) are the stiffness of the two axes and their bearing support system, the stiffness of the drive system (axis torsion) and the rigidity of the supporting structure of the mount itself (and of course the supporting pier\/tripod).  Like a system of springs, the rigidity of a mount is the result of all these factors combined, and is often dominated by its weakest element.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eAxes:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eAn often hidden or overlooked aspect of good mount design is the design and construction of the RA and DEC axes.   Much of the flex felt in commercial mountings is due to inadequate axis stiffness.  This can be caused by poor bearing configuration, long overhangs or cantilevering of the axis, or poor material choices.  Even seemingly large, massive, and impressive looking mountings often suffer from surprisingly soft axes due to poor design and implementation.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e10Micron uses large diameter thick wall alloy steel for both the RA and DEC axes.  Steel is 3 times stiffer than aluminum (which is often chosen for its lower weight).  Both axes are supported by extra-large diameter preloaded conical tapered roller bearings, which give much greater stiffness and bearing capacity than ball bearings.  The primary loads are closely coupled to the bearings to minimize flexure.  The result is an uncommonly high axis stiffness that minimizes flex in all directions.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eStructural:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eThe key structural elements of the 10Micron mounts (RA and DEC housings, Altitude Support Plates) and their attachments have been structurally engineered to provide high stiffness.   These key parts are precision machined as single pieces from solid bar or plate stock.  The altitude support plates are one piece gusseted and physically well-coupled to the oversized RA housing through precisely mating surfaces and 6-point clamping.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eDrive System:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eNo modern GoTo mount would be complete without a highly accurate and reliable drive system.  GoTo systems demand a difficult mix of high speed and high accuracy - over a long life of night-after-night use in automated installations.   To meet these tough demands, 10Micron chose the ideal material pairing of a special gear Bronze for the worm wheel, and a carefully matched alloy steel for the worm (\u003ci\u003enot stainless steel, which has inferior properties for use in a worm\u003c\/i\u003e).  While these materials add significant cost compared to the aluminum gears found on many other commercial mounts, the outstanding friction and wear properties of the gears are critical to delivering the ultra-high speed and low error over the life of the mounting. \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cspan\u003eWith the superior drive properties that come with Bronze also comes weight.  Rather than simply using lower cost aluminum for the gears to shave weight, both the Dec and RA gears incorporate central hubs of aluminum, and only the outer periphery is made from Bronze.  This combination takes more cost and effort, but gives the best of both worlds - the low weight of aluminum, with the superior drive and long wear properties of Bronze.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eThe bronze worm wheel and hardened steel worm are produced using the latest tooling and machinery.  Worms are evaluated using precision helical path analyzers to ensure a consistent and smooth low native periodic error. The HPS absolute encoders are integrated by the factory (not an add-on), precisely centered and calibrated uniquely for each mount.  After assembly, each mounting is analyzed as a\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003e\u003ci\u003ecomplete system\u003c\/i\u003e\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003eusing even higher precision encoders to ensure the HPS tracking accuracy meets the 10Micron standards.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cspan\u003eA unique zero-cogging kevlar belt reduction drive results in whisper quiet operation with virtually zero motor backlash.  Gone are the grinding and whirring noises of the gear drives used in most other telescope mountings.  Onlookers at NEAF were often seen pressing their ears close to the mountings just to see if they could hear the motors.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eThe spring loaded anti-backlash mechanism of the worm drives deliver near-zero backlash at the telescope.  The design of the worm support structure and large diameter precision tapered conical worm bearings result in a drive system with uncommon torsional rigidity, making the 10Micron mounts particularly adept at handling large refractors.  No wonder that TEC (Telescope Engineering Company) chose the GM2000 to demonstrate their long 8\" f\/8 refractors at star parties and shows.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eThe end result of all this careful engineering and execution are mounts that exceed expectations for rigidity and capacity.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eMotors:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eNew generation AC servo brushless motors with fully integrated servomotor system: F.I.S. is a new technology in the field of total electronic integration for control, power, encoder and communications, all built-in to the motor's body.  The use of FIS has enabled the blazing fast slew speeds up up to 20deg per second.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eControl System:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eThe electronics\u003cspan\u003e are housed in a separate control box which is easily removable. The connections to the motors and hand pad feature security lock screws.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eThe HPS control system also enables stand-alone operation through use of its ergonomic handpad, freeing the user from the requirement of having to always use an auxiliary PC to control the instrument.  Through the handpad, the stand-alone user can access all of the many integrated functions including; full Object Database, High-Precision Polar Alignment, Orthogonality Correction, Periodic Error Correction, as well as a Multi-Star Alignment which models and compensates for telescope pointing errors.  A GPS module is optionally available.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\u003c\/ul\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eTracking Speeds:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eSidereal, solar, lunar, custom, land mode.\u003cbr\u003eIt is possible to set different speeds for the two axes’ for comet or satellite tracking (satellite tracking function included as standard feature of the HPS system).\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eObject databases:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eInternal, complete catalogues: M, NGC, IC, PGC, UGC, SAO, BSC, HIP, HD, PPM, ADS, GCVS, PLANETS, ASTEROIDS, COMETS...all in memory.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eOperator interface: (No External PC Required!)\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eHandpad Controller: the control system uses an ergonomic hand terminal to pilot the mount, to slew to objects, to set parameters, to sync a star, to change slew or guide speeds. Includes a numerical keypad with rapid search keys, and a red 2x16 character industrial illuminated display that operates over a wide range of ambient temperatures: +40°C \/ –20°C (-4°F). The extended brightness range accommodates both daylight and night time viewing. It’s a total communication interface between the mount and the operator. Handpad includes a removable protective cover.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eGPS:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eThe controller includes a port for a GPS module (optional accessory). The system automatically links and adjusts itself to the GPS network date, time, and position.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eConnection to PC:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003cbr\u003e\u003cbr\u003eThe system can be controlled using the most common software packages by means of the LX200 protocol (same as Meade 16’’GPS), AP GTO protocol, or the proprietary 10Micron ASCOM (ie, prgrams such as The Sky, MaximDL, Desktop Universe, and Perseus).\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cspan\u003eFurthermore, dedicated software (also included with the mount) can be used to create a “virtual hand pad” which exactly replicates the functions of the physical hand pad, allowing full remote access to all hand pad functions. The RS-232 port can also be used to control an external dome. This flexibility makes the GM2000HPS an ideal mount for observatories and remote automated observing sites. \u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eRemote Operation and Connectivity:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe HPS mounts provide a great deal of connecting options. While you may choose the traditional RS-232 connection to control the electronics\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan\u003eup to 15 meters (50 ft) \u003c\/span\u003efrom an external PC, today you may prefer to dedicate it to directly\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003econtrolling a computerized\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003edome. The firmware will provide all the relevant computations even for mounts mounted off-center and instruments mounted with offset. The GPS port doubles as an additional RS-232 port, if you don’t use the GPS.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eBut, the best way of connecting the mount to your PC is using the\u003cstrong\u003e\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/strong\u003eLAN connection, via TCP\/IP, or the Wireless connection. The mount can connect to an existing\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003eWLAN, or it can be used as an hotspot to which your PC, tablet or smartphone can connect.  The mount can be controlled up to 100 meters (325 ft) from the PC with the LAN (Ethernet) connection using the included “virtual key pad” QCI software or with special custom made software using the 3490 port.  The system can be powered on \/off remotely using an external switch.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe system can be controlled through the LAN port, even remotely, by means of an Ethernet host server or by wireless links and Internet. Via LAN, the RS232 port can also be used to remotely control an external dome, without the need for a dedicated external PC.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe LAN connection offers superior high-voltage tolerance with respect to the typical RS-232 connection; this is even better with the\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003eWLAN\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003ewhich is… wireless. In case of remote observatories, which are subject to lightning, this may make the difference between healthy electronics and a fried one!\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe mount supports\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003eup to ten simultaneous TCP\/IP connections, so you can use different software, and also different devices, at the same time. 10micron provides an\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003eASCOM driver\u003cstrong\u003e \u003c\/strong\u003efor Windows, but if you want to implement your own control system, we provide the command set\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003ethat can be used both on the RS-232, LAN and WLAN connections. The command set is largely LX200 compatible, but includes many more functions and operating modes. In remote operation, you will appreciate also the additional security provided by the absolute encoders: in no case you will lose your alignment, even in case of slipping clutches.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eAutoguider Interface:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eSingle port standard SBIG and Starlight X-press interface: 6 contact standard phone jack (TTL).  \u003cspan\u003eIt is possible to autoguide using the ST4-compatible port or through the serial\/Ethernet connection, with a guide rate configurable from 0.1x to 1x. The guide rate can be automatically corrected for the declination of the target, so that there is no need to recalibrate the autoguide when observing at different declinations.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eEncoders:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eHPS has built-in motor encoders inside the motors which obtain a final resolution of 0.1 arcsec (GM4000) – 0.5 arcsec (GM2000) (minimum move size). The motor encoders are used together by the servo system along with the precision HPS absolute encoders to achieve the phenomenal tracking, pointing, and speed. Encoders maintain the position reference of the mount at every given moment, also after the system shutdown (park). Every time the system is switched on, it automatically initialize the motor’s soft homing of itself. Furthermore, the system can do a Hard Homing (with sensors) - GM4000 only.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003ePEC correction:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eNO periodic error correction is necessary with the HPS system. Periodic error is less than 0.5arcsec native, no PEC needed.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eSpecial Functions\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eCord-wrap protection:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe system takes into account the number of turns automatically and\/or manually made by the axis and prevents their wrapping, de-winding them every time that the system slews to a new object.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eMeridian flip:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe system automatically determines the ideal pointing position to avoid collision of the telescope with the base of the pier or tripod through the use of user-configurable parameters. The system allows pointing to an object up to 15 degrees past the meridian. This allows the user to point the telescope on the ‘wrong side of the meridian’ so that a meridian flip is not required in the middle of a long imaging session. The angle that the system will continue to track an object is user configurable up to a maximum of 30 degrees past the meridian. \u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan\u003eIn this way any object can be tracked for at least four hours.  \u003c\/span\u003eThe system may be set to permit pointing to objects up to 5 degrees below the horizon. Note: all limits are user configurable from 1° to max.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eMount alignment functions:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eAlignment of the polar axis with Polaris: this procedure uses a star and Polaris to align the polar axis.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eTwo star calibration: when this procedure is performed, the mount uses the two stars to calculate the polar axis error and compensate for it.\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eCalibration with additional stars: Refine 2-stars, up to 100 stars! This function builds an internal pointing model for more precise pointing and compensation for telescope mis-alignments (including non-orthogonality), allowing\u003cspan\u003e for the correction of the classical polar alignment and conic errors, and also of the most important flexure terms of the optical tube. In this way it is possible to obtain pointing accuracies of the order of 20 arcseconds RMS. The same model can be used in order to obtain the maximum tracking accuracy, compensating also for the atmospheric refraction (depending on the local atmospheric pressure and temperature).\u003c\/span\u003e\n\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eNo PC required!\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003e3-stars alignment: direct 3-star alignment (used to find some stars in a limited viewable-area sky condition)\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003c\/ul\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eAlignment of the polar axis without Polaris:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe “Polar Align” function is used to accurately align (to under 1 arcmin) the polar axis of the mount to the celestial pole without use of a polar finderscope. Polaris is not required to be visible. \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eOrthogonality error correction:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe” Ortho Align” function is used to help you to correct the mechanical orthogonality error of the instrument.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eAlign info:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThis function shows the alignment information. A short text will appear and tell you the type of alignment used (no alignment, 2‑stars, 3 or more stars if you have used additional stars) If a 2‑stars 3 or more alignment has been completed, the system shows an estimation of the polar axis position error:\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eAn estimation of the polar axis position error and its position angle relative to the celestial pole plus information how to correct errors operating directly on azimuth and altitude knobs.\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eAn estimation of the orthogonality error between the optical axis and the declination axis. This function is useful to verify that the telescope is really orthogonal to the declination axis.\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eA list of the aligned stars and date of the saved alignment.\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003c\/ul\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eAutomatic tracking “follow objects”:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWith this function, the system will automatically set a custom tracking rate in both axes each time it slews to an object, in order to follow it through the stars. Solar system objects can be tracked so that their motion is compensated with respect to the stars. \u003cspan\u003eYou may load orbital elements of comets, asteroids and even \u003cem\u003eartificial satellites\u003c\/em\u003e into the mount, so that these objects can be tracked directly using the hand pad (without any external PC).\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eVisible Object filter: (comets and asteroids)\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWhen you activate this function, the system will ask to you to define a magnitude limit in order to create the observable objects list.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eMultiple Instrument Support:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cspan\u003eThe HPS mounts feature a rich system of \u003c\/span\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eaccessories\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003cspan\u003e for mounting various instruments. Even multiple instruments can be mounted on a single mount, in order to have the right imaging equipment always ready. Since the pointing and tracking model depends on the specific instrument (the flexure is different), the mount allows for \u003c\/span\u003e\u003cstrong\u003edifferent models,\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003cspan\u003e one for each instrument, that can be saved in the internal memory and reloaded when required.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eObservatory Use:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe mount can be switched on and off using the dedicated connector on the control box panel. You can use the electronic balance functions in order to balance your instrument without unlocking the clutches. The mount can be parked in different user-defined positions. An external dome can be controlled directly using the RS-232 serial port, avoiding the need of using a dedicated external PC. Once configured with your instrument parameters, the firmware is able to make all the calculations required for positioning the dome slit in front of your optical tube, for almost all instrument configurations.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003ch5\u003eSpecifications\u003c\/h5\u003e\n\u003ctable width=\"671\"\u003e\n\u003ctbody\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd colspan=\"2\" width=\"661\"\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e\u003cem\u003eRA\/DEC Axes\u003c\/em\u003e\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eAxes Diameters, RA and DEC\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e2\" (50mm) Diameter\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eMaterial\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003eAlloy Steel (3X stiffness of Aluminum)\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eBearings\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003eMultiple Roller Conical, Preloaded\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e \u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e \u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd colspan=\"2\" width=\"646\"\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e\u003cem\u003eWorm Gearing\u003c\/em\u003e\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eWorm Wheel, RA and DEC\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e6.8\" (172mm) Diameter, 215 Tooth\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eMaterial\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003eBronze B14, aluminum body\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eWorms\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e0.95\" (24mm) Diameter, Tempered Alloy Steel, Ground and Lapped\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eBacklash Control\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003eNear-Zero, Spring-loaded Worm (rigidly supported)\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e \u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e \u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd colspan=\"2\" width=\"661\"\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cem\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eMotors\/Control\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/em\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eMotors\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003eAC Servo Brushless, F.I.S.\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003ePower Supply\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e24V DC\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003ePower Consumption\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e0.7A @ sidereal rate, 3A @ max speed, 5A Peak\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eControl System\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003eHPS\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eGuide Speed\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e0.5X\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eGo-To Speed\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e20°\/sec max.\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003ePointing Precision\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e3' typical with just polar alignment\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eSW Pointing Precision\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e\u0026lt; 20\" with internal 25 star mapping\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eTracking Precision\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e1 arcsec peak-peak (typical 15 minutes), 0.6 arcsec RMS\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e(w\/ internal 25 - stars software mapping and compensation of flexure and polar alignment errors)\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eCommunication Ports\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003eRS-232, GPS port, autoguide ST-4 protocol port, Ethernet 10\/100\/1000 Port.  WiFi included.\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e \u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e \u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd colspan=\"2\" width=\"646\"\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e\u003cem\u003eGeneral\u003c\/em\u003e\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eWeight\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e73 lbs (33 kg) total, mount head only\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eCapacity\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e110 lbs (50 kg)\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eSecurity Stop\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e\u003cspan\u003e+\/− 30° past meridian in r.a. (software) +\/− 45° past meridian in r.a. (mechanical)\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eLatitude Range\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e20° -\u003cspan\u003e 70\u003c\/span\u003e°, fine adjustment with altitude knob\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eAzimuth Adjustment\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e± 10°, fine adjustable with double screws\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eCounterweight Shaft\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e1.6\" (40 mm) diameter stainless steel, 9 lb (4 kg)\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eCounterweights (optional)\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e13.2 lb (6 kg) and 26.2 lb (12 kg), stainless steel, no-mar locking\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003ePolar Alignment Scope\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003eNO polar alignment scope required - extremely accurate software alignment routines eliminate the need for a polar alignment scope.\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\n\u003cstrong\u003eOperating Temperature (standard)\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e\u003c\/strong\u003e\n\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e- 15° C to + 35° C\u003cbr\u003e+ 05° F to + 95° F\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eStorage Temperature (standard)\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e- 40° C to + 50° C\u003cbr\u003e- 40° F to +122° F\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eSpecial Operating Temperature Range (Optional)\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003eOptional, for very low temperature operations (to -35°C); see options for more details\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003c\/tbody\u003e\n\u003c\/table\u003e\n\u003ch5\u003eIncluded Items\u003c\/h5\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eGM2000 HPS II Monolith Mount with built-in precision absolute axis-encoders\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eControl box with onboard-intelligence (Linux-processor), stand alone system ( no PC required , V. 2 – HPS version firmware\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eProfessional handcontrol unit with graphic display and temperature control\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eCables\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eCounterweight bar\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003ePier adapter for tripod \/ column\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eStrong  transport carton-box with shaped rigid foam\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eAllen key set\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eWiFi option included\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003c\/ul\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eImportant Notes:\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\n\u003cli\u003e\n\u003cspan\u003eCounterweights and power supply are \u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan\u003e\u003cem\u003enot\u003c\/em\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan\u003e supplied as standard with this package.\u003c\/span\u003e\n\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eAll\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003e10 Micron\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003emounts can ONLY be used with approved power supplies from our price list. Damage\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003ecaused by using third party power supplies can result in loss of warranty!\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003c\/ul\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003ch5\u003eDocuments\u003c\/h5\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eFor a detailed brochure on the GM2000 HPS, please click on the link below: (3.4MB pdf)\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003ca href=\"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0076\/7963\/9616\/files\/GM2000HPS-II-English.pdf?26\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener noreferrer\"\u003e\u003cimg src=\"https:\/\/www.10micron.eu\/wp-content\/uploads\/2016\/04\/GM2000-catalog-icon-150x200.jpg\"\u003e\u003c\/a\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eGM2000 HPS Accessories Diagram (1 MB pdf)\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003ca href=\"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0076\/7963\/9616\/files\/GM2000HPS-acc-diagr-S.pdf?26\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener noreferrer\"\u003e\u003cimg src=\"https:\/\/www.10micron.eu\/wp-content\/uploads\/2016\/03\/GM2000HPS-acc-diagr-icon-150x118.jpg\"\u003e\u003c\/a\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e GM2000 HPS Dimensions (1MB pdf)\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003ca href=\"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0076\/7963\/9616\/files\/GM2000HPSII-M.pdf?26\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener noreferrer\"\u003e\u003cimg src=\"https:\/\/www.10micron.eu\/wp-content\/uploads\/2016\/05\/GM2000HPSII-M-icon-150x100.jpg\"\u003e\u003c\/a\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eHPS Mounts Comparison Chart (3.5MB pdf)\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003ca href=\"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0076\/7963\/9616\/files\/10Micron-GM-HPS-April-2019.pdf?20\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener noreferrer\"\u003e\u003cimg src=\"https:\/\/www.10micron.eu\/wp-content\/uploads\/2019\/04\/GM-HPS-icon-150x200.jpg\"\u003e\u003c\/a\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eHPS Mounts Scale View (700 KB pdf)\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e \u003ca href=\"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0076\/7963\/9616\/files\/hps-mounts-view.pdf?22\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener noreferrer\"\u003e\u003cimg src=\"https:\/\/www.10micron.eu\/wp-content\/uploads\/2016\/04\/hps-mounts-view-icon-150x96.jpg\"\u003e\u003c\/a\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e","published_at":"2019-02-05T14:05:00-08:00","created_at":"2019-02-05T14:05:00-08:00","vendor":"10Micron","type":"Mount","tags":["Mount EQ"],"price":1428400,"price_min":1428400,"price_max":1428400,"available":true,"price_varies":false,"compare_at_price":null,"compare_at_price_min":0,"compare_at_price_max":0,"compare_at_price_varies":false,"variants":[{"id":24933673599040,"title":"Default Title","option1":"Default Title","option2":null,"option3":null,"sku":"10M2020","requires_shipping":true,"taxable":true,"featured_image":null,"available":true,"name":"10Micron GM2000 HPS \"Monolith\" GoTo Mount","public_title":null,"options":["Default Title"],"price":1428400,"weight":0,"compare_at_price":null,"inventory_management":null,"barcode":""}],"images":["\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0076\/7963\/9616\/products\/GM2000HPS-M-01-1.jpg?v=1574941971","\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0076\/7963\/9616\/products\/GM2000HPS-M-05-1.jpg?v=1574941971","\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0076\/7963\/9616\/products\/GM2000HPS-M-08-1.jpg?v=1574941971","\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0076\/7963\/9616\/products\/10M5030-1-2_75c9000a-c5c2-4d9e-9866-45fb45ded294.jpg?v=1574941971","\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0076\/7963\/9616\/products\/GM2000-control-box-1.jpg?v=1574941971"],"featured_image":"\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0076\/7963\/9616\/products\/GM2000HPS-M-01-1.jpg?v=1574941971","options":["Title"],"media":[{"alt":"10Micron GM2000 HPS \"Monolith\" GoTo Mount - Astro Mounts","id":5148304146496,"position":1,"preview_image":{"aspect_ratio":1.0,"height":600,"width":600,"src":"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0076\/7963\/9616\/products\/GM2000HPS-M-01-1.jpg?v=1570636630"},"aspect_ratio":1.0,"height":600,"media_type":"image","src":"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0076\/7963\/9616\/products\/GM2000HPS-M-01-1.jpg?v=1570636630","width":600},{"alt":"10Micron GM2000 HPS \"Monolith\" GoTo Mount - Astro Mounts","id":5148304212032,"position":2,"preview_image":{"aspect_ratio":1.0,"height":600,"width":600,"src":"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0076\/7963\/9616\/products\/GM2000HPS-M-05-1.jpg?v=1570636630"},"aspect_ratio":1.0,"height":600,"media_type":"image","src":"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0076\/7963\/9616\/products\/GM2000HPS-M-05-1.jpg?v=1570636630","width":600},{"alt":"10Micron GM2000 HPS \"Monolith\" GoTo Mount - Astro Mounts","id":5148304277568,"position":3,"preview_image":{"aspect_ratio":1.0,"height":600,"width":600,"src":"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0076\/7963\/9616\/products\/GM2000HPS-M-08-1.jpg?v=1570636630"},"aspect_ratio":1.0,"height":600,"media_type":"image","src":"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0076\/7963\/9616\/products\/GM2000HPS-M-08-1.jpg?v=1570636630","width":600},{"alt":"10Micron GM2000 HPS \"Monolith\" GoTo Mount - Astro Mounts","id":5148304408640,"position":4,"preview_image":{"aspect_ratio":1.0,"height":600,"width":600,"src":"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0076\/7963\/9616\/products\/10M5030-1-2_75c9000a-c5c2-4d9e-9866-45fb45ded294.jpg?v=1570636630"},"aspect_ratio":1.0,"height":600,"media_type":"image","src":"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0076\/7963\/9616\/products\/10M5030-1-2_75c9000a-c5c2-4d9e-9866-45fb45ded294.jpg?v=1570636630","width":600},{"alt":"10Micron GM2000 HPS \"Monolith\" GoTo Mount - Astro Mounts","id":5148304474176,"position":5,"preview_image":{"aspect_ratio":1.0,"height":600,"width":600,"src":"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0076\/7963\/9616\/products\/GM2000-control-box-1.jpg?v=1570636630"},"aspect_ratio":1.0,"height":600,"media_type":"image","src":"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0076\/7963\/9616\/products\/GM2000-control-box-1.jpg?v=1570636630","width":600}],"content":"\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e10Micron GM2000HPS II Monolithic Go-To Mount \u003c\/strong\u003e\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003e(\u003cstrong\u003eH\u003c\/strong\u003eigh\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eP\u003c\/strong\u003erecision and\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eS\u003c\/strong\u003epeed) \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eHPS control system utilizes internal absolute encoders on both axis along with a tightly integrated hardware and firmware control system to permit real-world sub arc-second tracking accuracy\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003e\u0026lt;20 arc sec pointing accuracy and \u0026lt;1 arc sec tracking accuracy (0.6\" RMS) for long exposure\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003e\u003cem\u003eunguided\u003c\/em\u003e\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003eimaging at long focal lengths\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eUp to 15 deg\/sec slewing\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003e\u003cspan\u003eThe HPS control system, hand controller w\/professional microswitches, and sophisticated internal pointing modelling enable full standalone operation without the use of an external computer\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eWiFi enabled\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eFully adjustable clutches on both axes\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eClean Cabling: Single all-in-one mount cable.\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003ePrecise and elegantly finished mechanics\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003e\u003cspan\u003ePerfect as an un-guided imaging platform for fully instrumented refractors up to 7\" and Cassegrains up to 14\" (ie, CDK14, RASA36).\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003e\u003cspan\u003eObservatory precision for permanent setups (73 lb).\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003e\u003cspan\u003eUsable instrument capacity of 110 lbs\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003c\/ul\u003e\n\u003ch5\u003eDescription\u003c\/h5\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe GM2000HPS Monolith German Equatorial Go-To Mount delivers the same phenomenal accuracy, performance, features, and build quality as it's larger siblings, in a compact highly portable 73 lb package.  The HPS (High Precision and Speed) absolute encoders and fully integrated standalone control system deliver a level of accuracy and performance unlike any other mounting in its class.  The monolithic one-piece mount head  is perfect as a permanent platform for general astronomy and (\u003cem\u003eun-guided\u003c\/em\u003e) imaging with fully instrumented refractors up to 7\" and Cassegrains up to 14\".\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWith a conservative usable instrument capacity of 110 lbs, the GM2000HPS delivers rigidity, accuracy, and performance that belie its size, exceeding mounts that are physically larger and heavier.  The state of the art bronze worm gear drive system and well-engineered axis mechanics deliver high rigidity, long term reliability and life, along with the phenomenal HPS tracking and pointing precision demanded by the most discriminating imagers.  \u003cspan\u003eThe build quality, precision of the machining, and the level of fit and finish are truly exceptional.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eA large range of tripods, Piers, mounting plates, and accessories are available from 10Micron and Baader Planetarium.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003ch5\u003eWhat is HPS?\u003c\/h5\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eHPS\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003cspan\u003e means “High Precision and Speed” and is the name for the series of astronomical mounts by 10micron. The HPS system features \u003c\/span\u003etwo high-precision absolute encoders that are integrated directly into each axis\u003cspan\u003e to ensure unprecedented pointing and tracking accuracy.  High performance servo motors and drivers enable high speed pointing.  The HPS system was architected from the ground-up for precision pointing and control.  The encoders were not simply added onto an existing mount and its control system.  The tightly integrated hardware and on-board firmware architecture results in total system response and accuracy that are superior to mount systems that require an external PC for pointing modelling and control.  Simply put - the HPS system results in improved pointing and significantly lower RMS tracking errors than competing mounts.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cspan\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan\u003eThis radical performance improvement over previous technology enables a radical change in the workflow of observers and astroimagers. In the vast majority of applications, including long exposure deep-sky imaging, the need for autoguiding is eliminated. The pointing accuracy allows you to be confident that, once the mount is properly setup, objects will be centered in the smallest field of view, even with a mobile setup on a remote meadow in the mountains. Furthermore, the internal electronics allows the mount to do almost everything \u003c\/span\u003ewithout the need for an external PC\u003cspan\u003e.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eEncoder System\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cspan\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan\u003eThe \u003cem\u003eabsolute\u003c\/em\u003e encoders provide high-accuracy, sub-arcsecond feedback to the motion of the mount. The absolute encoders render the axes “live” and free to react also to any external forces like wind and vibrations or accidental contact. Furthermore, this feedback is provided regardless of any zeroing or homing procedure.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan\u003e\u003cbr\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cspan\u003eThis means that the electronics will always know the position of the mount. You may move the mount around with the clutches unlocked and the electronics powered off, lock the clutches in any position and switch on the mount: the electronics will know where the telescope is looking. You may effectively use the mount as a Dobsonian telescope with manual pointing, retaining the full, sub- arcsecond accuracy of the encoders.  This equates to ease of use when operating in the field, since the setup procedure is much faster.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eHPS enables the GM2000HPS is able to deliver \u0026lt;1 arcsec (peak-peak) tracking and 20arcsec pointing accuracy. The accuracy and response of the HPS system gives the imager a powerful tool that enables un-guided long exposure images.  Never before has this level of accuracy been available to the amateur, and at such affordable prices.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cimg src=\"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0076\/7963\/9616\/files\/HPS_tracking_curve_med_large.jpg?v=1548882987\" alt=\"\"\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWith regard to the\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003eright ascension axis, virtually all the mechanical error from the reduction gearing is eliminated. Not only the so-called “Periodic Error”, which includes the periodic irregularities due to imperfection in the manufacturing and assembling of the worm, but also the non-periodic errors due to imperfections in the wormwheel, bearings, belts and other mechanical elements.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWith regard to the\u003cstrong\u003e\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/strong\u003edeclination axis, it may seem that the encoder system is less important, since there is no sidereal tracking motion. The reality is that the declination axis is critical to sidereal tracking. If you want to compensate for refraction, telescope, flexure and so on, you will have to move the declination axis at very small speeds in very small amounts. Furthermore, while the right ascension axis works always at the same speed (plus or minus small corrections), the declination axis works always at near-zero speeds, with the occasional inversion of the direction of motion. This means that mechanical backlash, belt flexure and friction forces show in the declination axis, and you can’t count on any “Periodic Error Correction” to compensate for them. Tricks for minimizing the effect of these forces in traditional mounts require having very small preload on the worm, with the risk of uncontrolled motion when the telescope is subjected to even small external forces, because of the disengaging of the worm from the wormwheel; painstakingly calibrating software backlash compensation procedures; manually adjusting the meshing of gears. Or, maybe, introducing intentionally small alignment errors, to force autoguide corrections always in the same direction. So, having an encoder mounted directly on-axis is at least as important in declination as in right ascension.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eMount Modelling\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe task of accurately pointing and tracking astronomical objects requires that the mount fully model all aspects of location, sky, and mechanics.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eModelling the orientation of the mount with respect to Earth\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eModelling the orientation of the telescope with respect to the mount.\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eModelling the errors of the mechanical system with respect to an “ideal” one.\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eModelling the influence of the atmosphere on the path of light rays.\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eModelling the orientation of Earth.\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eModelling the motion of astronomical objects themselves.\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003c\/ul\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eIn order to obtain the\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003esub-arcsecond tracking accuracy of the HPS mounts, all of this must be taken into consideration. Furthermore, many “subtle” effects begin to show, and they need special attention.  The HPS system takes modelling to another level than other mounts that use external PC pointing models.  HPS performs the modelling and stores the model in the internal control system of the mount.  In this way, the control system is able to provide rapid response and control of the mount, as well as for standalone operation.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eAlignment\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe quick alignment routines and highly reliable standalone operation enable rapid setup for a truly portable and efficient system (NO PC required for mount alignment and control!). With a mount head weight of only 43 lbs and its compact design, the GM2000HPS takes little effort to transport and set up. When outfitted as a complete package with its rock solid Centaurus II tripod and included accessories and fitted transport cases, the GM2000HPS becomes the ultimate turnkey highly-portable mounting sytem.  Its single all-in-one cable avoids the tangle of RA and DEC motor\/power cables that most other mounts require.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eControl System\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe sophisticated control system and belt driven brushless F.I.S. AC servomotors deliver whisper-quiet fast slews with high pointing precision and tracking.   The slew speed of up to 15 degrees\/second is 3x the speed of most other GoTo mounts, enabling lightning fast slews and precision tracking of satellites (the satellite tracking function is already embedded into the control system).\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan\u003eFurthermore, it helps to reduce loss of time in research application, increasing the amount of data that can be obtained in the often short observing nights.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe integrated control system also includes stand-alone operation through use of its ergonomic handpad, freeing the user from the requirement of having to always use an auxiliary PC to control the instrument.  Through the handpad, the stand-alone user can access all of the many integrated functions including; full Object Database, High-Precision Polar Alignment, Orthogonality Correction, Periodic Error Correction, as well as a Multi-Star Alignment which models and compensates for telescope pointing errors.  A GPS module is optionally available.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eEach mount is thoroughly tested as a system to ensure that its performance, accuracy, and quality meet the 10 Micron standards.  The engineering, design, and build quality of the GM2000HPS are unlike any other mounting in the world.  The precision of the machining, quality of the components, and the level of fit and finish are breathtaking.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eWhy Not Autoguding?\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cspan\u003eAutoguiding seems simpler… for the mount manufacturer. For the user, autoguiding means additional trouble. In case you use an external guider scope, it means that you can’t compensate for all flexures between the two instruments. And, you have additional, heavy equipment. In the case where you use a dedicated guider camera, it means additional cabling, software installation and setup. In any case, it means additional trouble searching for suitable guide stars, looking for customized guiding software parameters, calibration, and glitches between the guider\/mount\/PC. HPS mounts can be aligned to bright stars during twilight, then every second of darkness can be used for imaging. Furthermore, autoguiding is not always possible. The typical situation is imaging a faint, fast-moving comet. Anyway, if you still want \/ need autoguiding, HPS mounts provide a standard ST4 port, as well as all the usual settings and controls for use by remote software.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003ch5\u003eFeatures\u003c\/h5\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eQuality:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eAll the features and performance of the 10Micron mounts would be worthless without matching quality.  Each mount is thoroughly tested as a system to ensure that its performance, accuracy, and quality meet the 10 Micron standards.  The engineering, design, and build quality of the GM2000HPS are truly world-class.  The precision of the machining, quality of the components, and the level of fit and finish are exceptional and will satisfy the most critical user.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003ePrecision:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eThe HPS mounts were \u003cspan color=\"#111111\"\u003edeveloped at 10Micron by a team of professional engineers with decades of experience in the design and in-house production of precision machinery for the machine tool industry in Europe.  Each mounting is fully machined and assembled in-house at 10Micron's production facility in Italy.  As machining experts, 10Micron is able to consistently produce a level of precision that is unique in astronomy. \u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cspan color=\"#111111\"\u003eIn order to deliver the absolute highest accuracy and rigidity, in every mount produced, all critical parts of the mounting are machined as single pieces from solid plate or bar stock.  No screwed-together or crude cast structures are used.  The quality of machining and fabrication is evident in every part of the mounting, inside and out.  Part-to-part fit and matching is superb and machined edges are fully radiused and blended for a functional and aesthetically pleasing look.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e\u003cspan color=\"#111111\"\u003eFit and Finish:\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cspan color=\"#111111\"\u003eThe fit and finish \u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan color=\"#111111\"\u003eof every part is given close scrutiny.  All external surfaces of the mount are hand finished through a time consuming process to eliminate tooling marks, swirls, and sharp edges.  This process results in an exquisite satin finish that gives a beautiful and consistent look part-to-part, and serves to hide any smudges or marks that inevitably result from normal use and handling.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cspan color=\"#111111\"\u003eAfter surface finishing, the complete set of parts are hard anodized together in one batch, in order to provide high consistency of color part-to-part.  The hardness of the anodized surface resists wear and chipping, unlike paint.  The end result of all this careful finishing is a mounting that is as breathtaking to look at as it is to use.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eCapacity:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eMount capacity is often misunderstood, and typically implied to be primarily a function of gear size.  While most mountings (even small ones) can physically support and drive very large loads without failure, capacity is determined first and foremost by the rigidity of a mounting.  Rigidity is simply the 'springiness' that you feel (and see at the eyepiece) when pressing on the telescope or against its focuser.  It is easy to quickly judge the rigidity of a mounting simply by pressing against the telescope's focuser in each direction and noting how much a star shifts in the eyepiece.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eUnfortunately, it is not really possible to simply compare mountings on the basis of gear size, physical size, weight, or appearance.  Many unseen elements are primary contributors to a mount's performance.  The primary elements that contribute to rigidity (capacity) are the stiffness of the two axes and their bearing support system, the stiffness of the drive system (axis torsion) and the rigidity of the supporting structure of the mount itself (and of course the supporting pier\/tripod).  Like a system of springs, the rigidity of a mount is the result of all these factors combined, and is often dominated by its weakest element.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eAxes:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eAn often hidden or overlooked aspect of good mount design is the design and construction of the RA and DEC axes.   Much of the flex felt in commercial mountings is due to inadequate axis stiffness.  This can be caused by poor bearing configuration, long overhangs or cantilevering of the axis, or poor material choices.  Even seemingly large, massive, and impressive looking mountings often suffer from surprisingly soft axes due to poor design and implementation.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e10Micron uses large diameter thick wall alloy steel for both the RA and DEC axes.  Steel is 3 times stiffer than aluminum (which is often chosen for its lower weight).  Both axes are supported by extra-large diameter preloaded conical tapered roller bearings, which give much greater stiffness and bearing capacity than ball bearings.  The primary loads are closely coupled to the bearings to minimize flexure.  The result is an uncommonly high axis stiffness that minimizes flex in all directions.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eStructural:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eThe key structural elements of the 10Micron mounts (RA and DEC housings, Altitude Support Plates) and their attachments have been structurally engineered to provide high stiffness.   These key parts are precision machined as single pieces from solid bar or plate stock.  The altitude support plates are one piece gusseted and physically well-coupled to the oversized RA housing through precisely mating surfaces and 6-point clamping.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eDrive System:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eNo modern GoTo mount would be complete without a highly accurate and reliable drive system.  GoTo systems demand a difficult mix of high speed and high accuracy - over a long life of night-after-night use in automated installations.   To meet these tough demands, 10Micron chose the ideal material pairing of a special gear Bronze for the worm wheel, and a carefully matched alloy steel for the worm (\u003ci\u003enot stainless steel, which has inferior properties for use in a worm\u003c\/i\u003e).  While these materials add significant cost compared to the aluminum gears found on many other commercial mounts, the outstanding friction and wear properties of the gears are critical to delivering the ultra-high speed and low error over the life of the mounting. \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cspan\u003eWith the superior drive properties that come with Bronze also comes weight.  Rather than simply using lower cost aluminum for the gears to shave weight, both the Dec and RA gears incorporate central hubs of aluminum, and only the outer periphery is made from Bronze.  This combination takes more cost and effort, but gives the best of both worlds - the low weight of aluminum, with the superior drive and long wear properties of Bronze.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eThe bronze worm wheel and hardened steel worm are produced using the latest tooling and machinery.  Worms are evaluated using precision helical path analyzers to ensure a consistent and smooth low native periodic error. The HPS absolute encoders are integrated by the factory (not an add-on), precisely centered and calibrated uniquely for each mount.  After assembly, each mounting is analyzed as a\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003e\u003ci\u003ecomplete system\u003c\/i\u003e\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003eusing even higher precision encoders to ensure the HPS tracking accuracy meets the 10Micron standards.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cspan\u003eA unique zero-cogging kevlar belt reduction drive results in whisper quiet operation with virtually zero motor backlash.  Gone are the grinding and whirring noises of the gear drives used in most other telescope mountings.  Onlookers at NEAF were often seen pressing their ears close to the mountings just to see if they could hear the motors.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eThe spring loaded anti-backlash mechanism of the worm drives deliver near-zero backlash at the telescope.  The design of the worm support structure and large diameter precision tapered conical worm bearings result in a drive system with uncommon torsional rigidity, making the 10Micron mounts particularly adept at handling large refractors.  No wonder that TEC (Telescope Engineering Company) chose the GM2000 to demonstrate their long 8\" f\/8 refractors at star parties and shows.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eThe end result of all this careful engineering and execution are mounts that exceed expectations for rigidity and capacity.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eMotors:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eNew generation AC servo brushless motors with fully integrated servomotor system: F.I.S. is a new technology in the field of total electronic integration for control, power, encoder and communications, all built-in to the motor's body.  The use of FIS has enabled the blazing fast slew speeds up up to 20deg per second.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eControl System:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eThe electronics\u003cspan\u003e are housed in a separate control box which is easily removable. The connections to the motors and hand pad feature security lock screws.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eThe HPS control system also enables stand-alone operation through use of its ergonomic handpad, freeing the user from the requirement of having to always use an auxiliary PC to control the instrument.  Through the handpad, the stand-alone user can access all of the many integrated functions including; full Object Database, High-Precision Polar Alignment, Orthogonality Correction, Periodic Error Correction, as well as a Multi-Star Alignment which models and compensates for telescope pointing errors.  A GPS module is optionally available.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\u003c\/ul\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eTracking Speeds:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eSidereal, solar, lunar, custom, land mode.\u003cbr\u003eIt is possible to set different speeds for the two axes’ for comet or satellite tracking (satellite tracking function included as standard feature of the HPS system).\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eObject databases:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eInternal, complete catalogues: M, NGC, IC, PGC, UGC, SAO, BSC, HIP, HD, PPM, ADS, GCVS, PLANETS, ASTEROIDS, COMETS...all in memory.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eOperator interface: (No External PC Required!)\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eHandpad Controller: the control system uses an ergonomic hand terminal to pilot the mount, to slew to objects, to set parameters, to sync a star, to change slew or guide speeds. Includes a numerical keypad with rapid search keys, and a red 2x16 character industrial illuminated display that operates over a wide range of ambient temperatures: +40°C \/ –20°C (-4°F). The extended brightness range accommodates both daylight and night time viewing. It’s a total communication interface between the mount and the operator. Handpad includes a removable protective cover.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eGPS:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003eThe controller includes a port for a GPS module (optional accessory). The system automatically links and adjusts itself to the GPS network date, time, and position.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eConnection to PC:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003cbr\u003e\u003cbr\u003eThe system can be controlled using the most common software packages by means of the LX200 protocol (same as Meade 16’’GPS), AP GTO protocol, or the proprietary 10Micron ASCOM (ie, prgrams such as The Sky, MaximDL, Desktop Universe, and Perseus).\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cspan\u003eFurthermore, dedicated software (also included with the mount) can be used to create a “virtual hand pad” which exactly replicates the functions of the physical hand pad, allowing full remote access to all hand pad functions. The RS-232 port can also be used to control an external dome. This flexibility makes the GM2000HPS an ideal mount for observatories and remote automated observing sites. \u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp align=\"justify\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eRemote Operation and Connectivity:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe HPS mounts provide a great deal of connecting options. While you may choose the traditional RS-232 connection to control the electronics\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan\u003eup to 15 meters (50 ft) \u003c\/span\u003efrom an external PC, today you may prefer to dedicate it to directly\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003econtrolling a computerized\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003edome. The firmware will provide all the relevant computations even for mounts mounted off-center and instruments mounted with offset. The GPS port doubles as an additional RS-232 port, if you don’t use the GPS.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eBut, the best way of connecting the mount to your PC is using the\u003cstrong\u003e\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/strong\u003eLAN connection, via TCP\/IP, or the Wireless connection. The mount can connect to an existing\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003eWLAN, or it can be used as an hotspot to which your PC, tablet or smartphone can connect.  The mount can be controlled up to 100 meters (325 ft) from the PC with the LAN (Ethernet) connection using the included “virtual key pad” QCI software or with special custom made software using the 3490 port.  The system can be powered on \/off remotely using an external switch.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe system can be controlled through the LAN port, even remotely, by means of an Ethernet host server or by wireless links and Internet. Via LAN, the RS232 port can also be used to remotely control an external dome, without the need for a dedicated external PC.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe LAN connection offers superior high-voltage tolerance with respect to the typical RS-232 connection; this is even better with the\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003eWLAN\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003ewhich is… wireless. In case of remote observatories, which are subject to lightning, this may make the difference between healthy electronics and a fried one!\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe mount supports\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003eup to ten simultaneous TCP\/IP connections, so you can use different software, and also different devices, at the same time. 10micron provides an\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003eASCOM driver\u003cstrong\u003e \u003c\/strong\u003efor Windows, but if you want to implement your own control system, we provide the command set\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003ethat can be used both on the RS-232, LAN and WLAN connections. The command set is largely LX200 compatible, but includes many more functions and operating modes. In remote operation, you will appreciate also the additional security provided by the absolute encoders: in no case you will lose your alignment, even in case of slipping clutches.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eAutoguider Interface:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eSingle port standard SBIG and Starlight X-press interface: 6 contact standard phone jack (TTL).  \u003cspan\u003eIt is possible to autoguide using the ST4-compatible port or through the serial\/Ethernet connection, with a guide rate configurable from 0.1x to 1x. The guide rate can be automatically corrected for the declination of the target, so that there is no need to recalibrate the autoguide when observing at different declinations.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eEncoders:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eHPS has built-in motor encoders inside the motors which obtain a final resolution of 0.1 arcsec (GM4000) – 0.5 arcsec (GM2000) (minimum move size). The motor encoders are used together by the servo system along with the precision HPS absolute encoders to achieve the phenomenal tracking, pointing, and speed. Encoders maintain the position reference of the mount at every given moment, also after the system shutdown (park). Every time the system is switched on, it automatically initialize the motor’s soft homing of itself. Furthermore, the system can do a Hard Homing (with sensors) - GM4000 only.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003ePEC correction:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eNO periodic error correction is necessary with the HPS system. Periodic error is less than 0.5arcsec native, no PEC needed.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eSpecial Functions\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eCord-wrap protection:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe system takes into account the number of turns automatically and\/or manually made by the axis and prevents their wrapping, de-winding them every time that the system slews to a new object.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eMeridian flip:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe system automatically determines the ideal pointing position to avoid collision of the telescope with the base of the pier or tripod through the use of user-configurable parameters. The system allows pointing to an object up to 15 degrees past the meridian. This allows the user to point the telescope on the ‘wrong side of the meridian’ so that a meridian flip is not required in the middle of a long imaging session. The angle that the system will continue to track an object is user configurable up to a maximum of 30 degrees past the meridian. \u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan\u003eIn this way any object can be tracked for at least four hours.  \u003c\/span\u003eThe system may be set to permit pointing to objects up to 5 degrees below the horizon. Note: all limits are user configurable from 1° to max.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eMount alignment functions:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eAlignment of the polar axis with Polaris: this procedure uses a star and Polaris to align the polar axis.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eTwo star calibration: when this procedure is performed, the mount uses the two stars to calculate the polar axis error and compensate for it.\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eCalibration with additional stars: Refine 2-stars, up to 100 stars! This function builds an internal pointing model for more precise pointing and compensation for telescope mis-alignments (including non-orthogonality), allowing\u003cspan\u003e for the correction of the classical polar alignment and conic errors, and also of the most important flexure terms of the optical tube. In this way it is possible to obtain pointing accuracies of the order of 20 arcseconds RMS. The same model can be used in order to obtain the maximum tracking accuracy, compensating also for the atmospheric refraction (depending on the local atmospheric pressure and temperature).\u003c\/span\u003e\n\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eNo PC required!\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003e3-stars alignment: direct 3-star alignment (used to find some stars in a limited viewable-area sky condition)\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003c\/ul\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eAlignment of the polar axis without Polaris:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe “Polar Align” function is used to accurately align (to under 1 arcmin) the polar axis of the mount to the celestial pole without use of a polar finderscope. Polaris is not required to be visible. \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eOrthogonality error correction:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe” Ortho Align” function is used to help you to correct the mechanical orthogonality error of the instrument.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eAlign info:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThis function shows the alignment information. A short text will appear and tell you the type of alignment used (no alignment, 2‑stars, 3 or more stars if you have used additional stars) If a 2‑stars 3 or more alignment has been completed, the system shows an estimation of the polar axis position error:\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eAn estimation of the polar axis position error and its position angle relative to the celestial pole plus information how to correct errors operating directly on azimuth and altitude knobs.\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eAn estimation of the orthogonality error between the optical axis and the declination axis. This function is useful to verify that the telescope is really orthogonal to the declination axis.\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eA list of the aligned stars and date of the saved alignment.\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003c\/ul\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eAutomatic tracking “follow objects”:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWith this function, the system will automatically set a custom tracking rate in both axes each time it slews to an object, in order to follow it through the stars. Solar system objects can be tracked so that their motion is compensated with respect to the stars. \u003cspan\u003eYou may load orbital elements of comets, asteroids and even \u003cem\u003eartificial satellites\u003c\/em\u003e into the mount, so that these objects can be tracked directly using the hand pad (without any external PC).\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eVisible Object filter: (comets and asteroids)\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eWhen you activate this function, the system will ask to you to define a magnitude limit in order to create the observable objects list.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eMultiple Instrument Support:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cspan\u003eThe HPS mounts feature a rich system of \u003c\/span\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eaccessories\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003cspan\u003e for mounting various instruments. Even multiple instruments can be mounted on a single mount, in order to have the right imaging equipment always ready. Since the pointing and tracking model depends on the specific instrument (the flexure is different), the mount allows for \u003c\/span\u003e\u003cstrong\u003edifferent models,\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003cspan\u003e one for each instrument, that can be saved in the internal memory and reloaded when required.\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eObservatory Use:\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe mount can be switched on and off using the dedicated connector on the control box panel. You can use the electronic balance functions in order to balance your instrument without unlocking the clutches. The mount can be parked in different user-defined positions. An external dome can be controlled directly using the RS-232 serial port, avoiding the need of using a dedicated external PC. Once configured with your instrument parameters, the firmware is able to make all the calculations required for positioning the dome slit in front of your optical tube, for almost all instrument configurations.\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003ch5\u003eSpecifications\u003c\/h5\u003e\n\u003ctable width=\"671\"\u003e\n\u003ctbody\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd colspan=\"2\" width=\"661\"\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e\u003cem\u003eRA\/DEC Axes\u003c\/em\u003e\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eAxes Diameters, RA and DEC\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e2\" (50mm) Diameter\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eMaterial\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003eAlloy Steel (3X stiffness of Aluminum)\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eBearings\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003eMultiple Roller Conical, Preloaded\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e \u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e \u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd colspan=\"2\" width=\"646\"\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e\u003cem\u003eWorm Gearing\u003c\/em\u003e\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eWorm Wheel, RA and DEC\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e6.8\" (172mm) Diameter, 215 Tooth\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eMaterial\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003eBronze B14, aluminum body\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eWorms\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e0.95\" (24mm) Diameter, Tempered Alloy Steel, Ground and Lapped\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eBacklash Control\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003eNear-Zero, Spring-loaded Worm (rigidly supported)\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e \u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e \u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd colspan=\"2\" width=\"661\"\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cem\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eMotors\/Control\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/em\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eMotors\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003eAC Servo Brushless, F.I.S.\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003ePower Supply\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e24V DC\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003ePower Consumption\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e0.7A @ sidereal rate, 3A @ max speed, 5A Peak\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eControl System\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003eHPS\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eGuide Speed\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e0.5X\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eGo-To Speed\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e20°\/sec max.\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003ePointing Precision\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e3' typical with just polar alignment\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eSW Pointing Precision\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e\u0026lt; 20\" with internal 25 star mapping\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eTracking Precision\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e1 arcsec peak-peak (typical 15 minutes), 0.6 arcsec RMS\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e(w\/ internal 25 - stars software mapping and compensation of flexure and polar alignment errors)\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eCommunication Ports\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003eRS-232, GPS port, autoguide ST-4 protocol port, Ethernet 10\/100\/1000 Port.  WiFi included.\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e \u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e \u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd colspan=\"2\" width=\"646\"\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e\u003cem\u003eGeneral\u003c\/em\u003e\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eWeight\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e73 lbs (33 kg) total, mount head only\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eCapacity\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e110 lbs (50 kg)\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eSecurity Stop\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e\u003cspan\u003e+\/− 30° past meridian in r.a. (software) +\/− 45° past meridian in r.a. (mechanical)\u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eLatitude Range\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e20° -\u003cspan\u003e 70\u003c\/span\u003e°, fine adjustment with altitude knob\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eAzimuth Adjustment\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e± 10°, fine adjustable with double screws\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eCounterweight Shaft\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e1.6\" (40 mm) diameter stainless steel, 9 lb (4 kg)\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eCounterweights (optional)\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e13.2 lb (6 kg) and 26.2 lb (12 kg), stainless steel, no-mar locking\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003ePolar Alignment Scope\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003eNO polar alignment scope required - extremely accurate software alignment routines eliminate the need for a polar alignment scope.\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\n\u003cstrong\u003eOperating Temperature (standard)\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003cstrong\u003e\u003c\/strong\u003e\n\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e- 15° C to + 35° C\u003cbr\u003e+ 05° F to + 95° F\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eStorage Temperature (standard)\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003e- 40° C to + 50° C\u003cbr\u003e- 40° F to +122° F\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003ctr\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"196\"\u003e\u003cstrong\u003eSpecial Operating Temperature Range (Optional)\u003c\/strong\u003e\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003ctd width=\"450\"\u003eOptional, for very low temperature operations (to -35°C); see options for more details\u003c\/td\u003e\n\u003c\/tr\u003e\n\u003c\/tbody\u003e\n\u003c\/table\u003e\n\u003ch5\u003eIncluded Items\u003c\/h5\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eGM2000 HPS II Monolith Mount with built-in precision absolute axis-encoders\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eControl box with onboard-intelligence (Linux-processor), stand alone system ( no PC required , V. 2 – HPS version firmware\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eProfessional handcontrol unit with graphic display and temperature control\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eCables\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eCounterweight bar\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003ePier adapter for tripod \/ column\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eStrong  transport carton-box with shaped rigid foam\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eAllen key set\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eWiFi option included\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003c\/ul\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eImportant Notes:\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cul\u003e\n\u003cli\u003e\n\u003cspan\u003eCounterweights and power supply are \u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan\u003e\u003cem\u003enot\u003c\/em\u003e\u003c\/span\u003e\u003cspan\u003e supplied as standard with this package.\u003c\/span\u003e\n\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003eAll\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003e10 Micron\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003emounts can ONLY be used with approved power supplies from our price list. Damage\u003cspan\u003e \u003c\/span\u003ecaused by using third party power supplies can result in loss of warranty!\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003c\/ul\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003ch5\u003eDocuments\u003c\/h5\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eFor a detailed brochure on the GM2000 HPS, please click on the link below: (3.4MB pdf)\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003ca href=\"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0076\/7963\/9616\/files\/GM2000HPS-II-English.pdf?26\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener noreferrer\"\u003e\u003cimg src=\"https:\/\/www.10micron.eu\/wp-content\/uploads\/2016\/04\/GM2000-catalog-icon-150x200.jpg\"\u003e\u003c\/a\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eGM2000 HPS Accessories Diagram (1 MB pdf)\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003ca href=\"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0076\/7963\/9616\/files\/GM2000HPS-acc-diagr-S.pdf?26\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener noreferrer\"\u003e\u003cimg src=\"https:\/\/www.10micron.eu\/wp-content\/uploads\/2016\/03\/GM2000HPS-acc-diagr-icon-150x118.jpg\"\u003e\u003c\/a\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e GM2000 HPS Dimensions (1MB pdf)\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003ca href=\"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0076\/7963\/9616\/files\/GM2000HPSII-M.pdf?26\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener noreferrer\"\u003e\u003cimg src=\"https:\/\/www.10micron.eu\/wp-content\/uploads\/2016\/05\/GM2000HPSII-M-icon-150x100.jpg\"\u003e\u003c\/a\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eHPS Mounts Comparison Chart (3.5MB pdf)\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003ca href=\"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0076\/7963\/9616\/files\/10Micron-GM-HPS-April-2019.pdf?20\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener noreferrer\"\u003e\u003cimg src=\"https:\/\/www.10micron.eu\/wp-content\/uploads\/2019\/04\/GM-HPS-icon-150x200.jpg\"\u003e\u003c\/a\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e \u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eHPS Mounts Scale View (700 KB pdf)\u003c\/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e \u003ca href=\"https:\/\/cdn.shopify.com\/s\/files\/1\/0076\/7963\/9616\/files\/hps-mounts-view.pdf?22\" target=\"_blank\" rel=\"noopener noreferrer\"\u003e\u003cimg src=\"https:\/\/www.10micron.eu\/wp-content\/uploads\/2016\/04\/hps-mounts-view-icon-150x96.jpg\"\u003e\u003c\/a\u003e\u003c\/p\u003e"}

10Micron GM2000 HPS "Monolith" GoTo Mount

Product Description

10Micron GM2000HPS II Monolithic Go-To Mount  (High Precision and Speed) 

  • HPS control system utilizes internal absolute encoders on both axis along with a tightly integrated hardware and firmware control system to permit real-world sub arc-second tracking accuracy
  • <20 arc sec pointing accuracy and <1 arc sec tracking accuracy (0.6" RMS) for long exposure unguided imaging at long focal lengths
  • Up to 15 deg/sec slewing
  • The HPS control system, hand controller w/professional microswitches, and sophisticated internal pointing modelling enable full standalone operation without the use of an external computer
  • WiFi enabled
  • Fully adjustable clutches on both axes
  • Clean Cabling: Single all-in-one mount cable.
  • Precise and elegantly finished mechanics
  • Perfect as an un-guided imaging platform for fully instrumented refractors up to 7" and Cassegrains up to 14" (ie, CDK14, RASA36).
  • Observatory precision for permanent setups (73 lb).
  • Usable instrument capacity of 110 lbs
Sku: 10M2020
Vendor: 10Micron
$14,284.00
Maximum quantity available reached.
Description

The GM2000HPS Monolith German Equatorial Go-To Mount delivers the same phenomenal accuracy, performance, features, and build quality as it's larger siblings, in a compact highly portable 73 lb package.  The HPS (High Precision and Speed) absolute encoders and fully integrated standalone control system deliver a level of accuracy and performance unlike any other mounting in its class.  The monolithic one-piece mount head  is perfect as a permanent platform for general astronomy and (un-guided) imaging with fully instrumented refractors up to 7" and Cassegrains up to 14".

With a conservative usable instrument capacity of 110 lbs, the GM2000HPS delivers rigidity, accuracy, and performance that belie its size, exceeding mounts that are physically larger and heavier.  The state of the art bronze worm gear drive system and well-engineered axis mechanics deliver high rigidity, long term reliability and life, along with the phenomenal HPS tracking and pointing precision demanded by the most discriminating imagers.  The build quality, precision of the machining, and the level of fit and finish are truly exceptional.

A large range of tripods, Piers, mounting plates, and accessories are available from 10Micron and Baader Planetarium.

What is HPS?

HPS means “High Precision and Speed” and is the name for the series of astronomical mounts by 10micron. The HPS system features two high-precision absolute encoders that are integrated directly into each axis to ensure unprecedented pointing and tracking accuracy.  High performance servo motors and drivers enable high speed pointing.  The HPS system was architected from the ground-up for precision pointing and control.  The encoders were not simply added onto an existing mount and its control system.  The tightly integrated hardware and on-board firmware architecture results in total system response and accuracy that are superior to mount systems that require an external PC for pointing modelling and control.  Simply put - the HPS system results in improved pointing and significantly lower RMS tracking errors than competing mounts.

This radical performance improvement over previous technology enables a radical change in the workflow of observers and astroimagers. In the vast majority of applications, including long exposure deep-sky imaging, the need for autoguiding is eliminated. The pointing accuracy allows you to be confident that, once the mount is properly setup, objects will be centered in the smallest field of view, even with a mobile setup on a remote meadow in the mountains. Furthermore, the internal electronics allows the mount to do almost everything without the need for an external PC.

Encoder System

The absolute encoders provide high-accuracy, sub-arcsecond feedback to the motion of the mount. The absolute encoders render the axes “live” and free to react also to any external forces like wind and vibrations or accidental contact. Furthermore, this feedback is provided regardless of any zeroing or homing procedure.

This means that the electronics will always know the position of the mount. You may move the mount around with the clutches unlocked and the electronics powered off, lock the clutches in any position and switch on the mount: the electronics will know where the telescope is looking. You may effectively use the mount as a Dobsonian telescope with manual pointing, retaining the full, sub- arcsecond accuracy of the encoders.  This equates to ease of use when operating in the field, since the setup procedure is much faster.

HPS enables the GM2000HPS is able to deliver <1 arcsec (peak-peak) tracking and 20arcsec pointing accuracy. The accuracy and response of the HPS system gives the imager a powerful tool that enables un-guided long exposure images.  Never before has this level of accuracy been available to the amateur, and at such affordable prices.

With regard to the right ascension axis, virtually all the mechanical error from the reduction gearing is eliminated. Not only the so-called “Periodic Error”, which includes the periodic irregularities due to imperfection in the manufacturing and assembling of the worm, but also the non-periodic errors due to imperfections in the wormwheel, bearings, belts and other mechanical elements.

With regard to the declination axis, it may seem that the encoder system is less important, since there is no sidereal tracking motion. The reality is that the declination axis is critical to sidereal tracking. If you want to compensate for refraction, telescope, flexure and so on, you will have to move the declination axis at very small speeds in very small amounts. Furthermore, while the right ascension axis works always at the same speed (plus or minus small corrections), the declination axis works always at near-zero speeds, with the occasional inversion of the direction of motion. This means that mechanical backlash, belt flexure and friction forces show in the declination axis, and you can’t count on any “Periodic Error Correction” to compensate for them. Tricks for minimizing the effect of these forces in traditional mounts require having very small preload on the worm, with the risk of uncontrolled motion when the telescope is subjected to even small external forces, because of the disengaging of the worm from the wormwheel; painstakingly calibrating software backlash compensation procedures; manually adjusting the meshing of gears. Or, maybe, introducing intentionally small alignment errors, to force autoguide corrections always in the same direction. So, having an encoder mounted directly on-axis is at least as important in declination as in right ascension.

Mount Modelling

The task of accurately pointing and tracking astronomical objects requires that the mount fully model all aspects of location, sky, and mechanics.

  • Modelling the orientation of the mount with respect to Earth
  • Modelling the orientation of the telescope with respect to the mount.
  • Modelling the errors of the mechanical system with respect to an “ideal” one.
  • Modelling the influence of the atmosphere on the path of light rays.
  • Modelling the orientation of Earth.
  • Modelling the motion of astronomical objects themselves.

In order to obtain the sub-arcsecond tracking accuracy of the HPS mounts, all of this must be taken into consideration. Furthermore, many “subtle” effects begin to show, and they need special attention.  The HPS system takes modelling to another level than other mounts that use external PC pointing models.  HPS performs the modelling and stores the model in the internal control system of the mount.  In this way, the control system is able to provide rapid response and control of the mount, as well as for standalone operation.

Alignment

The quick alignment routines and highly reliable standalone operation enable rapid setup for a truly portable and efficient system (NO PC required for mount alignment and control!). With a mount head weight of only 43 lbs and its compact design, the GM2000HPS takes little effort to transport and set up. When outfitted as a complete package with its rock solid Centaurus II tripod and included accessories and fitted transport cases, the GM2000HPS becomes the ultimate turnkey highly-portable mounting sytem.  Its single all-in-one cable avoids the tangle of RA and DEC motor/power cables that most other mounts require.

Control System

The sophisticated control system and belt driven brushless F.I.S. AC servomotors deliver whisper-quiet fast slews with high pointing precision and tracking.   The slew speed of up to 15 degrees/second is 3x the speed of most other GoTo mounts, enabling lightning fast slews and precision tracking of satellites (the satellite tracking function is already embedded into the control system). Furthermore, it helps to reduce loss of time in research application, increasing the amount of data that can be obtained in the often short observing nights.

The integrated control system also includes stand-alone operation through use of its ergonomic handpad, freeing the user from the requirement of having to always use an auxiliary PC to control the instrument.  Through the handpad, the stand-alone user can access all of the many integrated functions including; full Object Database, High-Precision Polar Alignment, Orthogonality Correction, Periodic Error Correction, as well as a Multi-Star Alignment which models and compensates for telescope pointing errors.  A GPS module is optionally available.

Each mount is thoroughly tested as a system to ensure that its performance, accuracy, and quality meet the 10 Micron standards.  The engineering, design, and build quality of the GM2000HPS are unlike any other mounting in the world.  The precision of the machining, quality of the components, and the level of fit and finish are breathtaking.

Why Not Autoguding?

Autoguiding seems simpler… for the mount manufacturer. For the user, autoguiding means additional trouble. In case you use an external guider scope, it means that you can’t compensate for all flexures between the two instruments. And, you have additional, heavy equipment. In the case where you use a dedicated guider camera, it means additional cabling, software installation and setup. In any case, it means additional trouble searching for suitable guide stars, looking for customized guiding software parameters, calibration, and glitches between the guider/mount/PC. HPS mounts can be aligned to bright stars during twilight, then every second of darkness can be used for imaging. Furthermore, autoguiding is not always possible. The typical situation is imaging a faint, fast-moving comet. Anyway, if you still want / need autoguiding, HPS mounts provide a standard ST4 port, as well as all the usual settings and controls for use by remote software.

Features

Quality:

All the features and performance of the 10Micron mounts would be worthless without matching quality.  Each mount is thoroughly tested as a system to ensure that its performance, accuracy, and quality meet the 10 Micron standards.  The engineering, design, and build quality of the GM2000HPS are truly world-class.  The precision of the machining, quality of the components, and the level of fit and finish are exceptional and will satisfy the most critical user.

Precision:

The HPS mounts were developed at 10Micron by a team of professional engineers with decades of experience in the design and in-house production of precision machinery for the machine tool industry in Europe.  Each mounting is fully machined and assembled in-house at 10Micron's production facility in Italy.  As machining experts, 10Micron is able to consistently produce a level of precision that is unique in astronomy. 

In order to deliver the absolute highest accuracy and rigidity, in every mount produced, all critical parts of the mounting are machined as single pieces from solid plate or bar stock.  No screwed-together or crude cast structures are used.  The quality of machining and fabrication is evident in every part of the mounting, inside and out.  Part-to-part fit and matching is superb and machined edges are fully radiused and blended for a functional and aesthetically pleasing look.

Fit and Finish:

The fit and finish of every part is given close scrutiny.  All external surfaces of the mount are hand finished through a time consuming process to eliminate tooling marks, swirls, and sharp edges.  This process results in an exquisite satin finish that gives a beautiful and consistent look part-to-part, and serves to hide any smudges or marks that inevitably result from normal use and handling.

After surface finishing, the complete set of parts are hard anodized together in one batch, in order to provide high consistency of color part-to-part.  The hardness of the anodized surface resists wear and chipping, unlike paint.  The end result of all this careful finishing is a mounting that is as breathtaking to look at as it is to use.

Capacity:

Mount capacity is often misunderstood, and typically implied to be primarily a function of gear size.  While most mountings (even small ones) can physically support and drive very large loads without failure, capacity is determined first and foremost by the rigidity of a mounting.  Rigidity is simply the 'springiness' that you feel (and see at the eyepiece) when pressing on the telescope or against its focuser.  It is easy to quickly judge the rigidity of a mounting simply by pressing against the telescope's focuser in each direction and noting how much a star shifts in the eyepiece.

Unfortunately, it is not really possible to simply compare mountings on the basis of gear size, physical size, weight, or appearance.  Many unseen elements are primary contributors to a mount's performance.  The primary elements that contribute to rigidity (capacity) are the stiffness of the two axes and their bearing support system, the stiffness of the drive system (axis torsion) and the rigidity of the supporting structure of the mount itself (and of course the supporting pier/tripod).  Like a system of springs, the rigidity of a mount is the result of all these factors combined, and is often dominated by its weakest element.

Axes:

An often hidden or overlooked aspect of good mount design is the design and construction of the RA and DEC axes.   Much of the flex felt in commercial mountings is due to inadequate axis stiffness.  This can be caused by poor bearing configuration, long overhangs or cantilevering of the axis, or poor material choices.  Even seemingly large, massive, and impressive looking mountings often suffer from surprisingly soft axes due to poor design and implementation.

10Micron uses large diameter thick wall alloy steel for both the RA and DEC axes.  Steel is 3 times stiffer than aluminum (which is often chosen for its lower weight).  Both axes are supported by extra-large diameter preloaded conical tapered roller bearings, which give much greater stiffness and bearing capacity than ball bearings.  The primary loads are closely coupled to the bearings to minimize flexure.  The result is an uncommonly high axis stiffness that minimizes flex in all directions.

Structural:

The key structural elements of the 10Micron mounts (RA and DEC housings, Altitude Support Plates) and their attachments have been structurally engineered to provide high stiffness.   These key parts are precision machined as single pieces from solid bar or plate stock.  The altitude support plates are one piece gusseted and physically well-coupled to the oversized RA housing through precisely mating surfaces and 6-point clamping.

Drive System:

No modern GoTo mount would be complete without a highly accurate and reliable drive system.  GoTo systems demand a difficult mix of high speed and high accuracy - over a long life of night-after-night use in automated installations.   To meet these tough demands, 10Micron chose the ideal material pairing of a special gear Bronze for the worm wheel, and a carefully matched alloy steel for the worm (not stainless steel, which has inferior properties for use in a worm).  While these materials add significant cost compared to the aluminum gears found on many other commercial mounts, the outstanding friction and wear properties of the gears are critical to delivering the ultra-high speed and low error over the life of the mounting. 

With the superior drive properties that come with Bronze also comes weight.  Rather than simply using lower cost aluminum for the gears to shave weight, both the Dec and RA gears incorporate central hubs of aluminum, and only the outer periphery is made from Bronze.  This combination takes more cost and effort, but gives the best of both worlds - the low weight of aluminum, with the superior drive and long wear properties of Bronze.

The bronze worm wheel and hardened steel worm are produced using the latest tooling and machinery.  Worms are evaluated using precision helical path analyzers to ensure a consistent and smooth low native periodic error. The HPS absolute encoders are integrated by the factory (not an add-on), precisely centered and calibrated uniquely for each mount.  After assembly, each mounting is analyzed as a complete system using even higher precision encoders to ensure the HPS tracking accuracy meets the 10Micron standards.

A unique zero-cogging kevlar belt reduction drive results in whisper quiet operation with virtually zero motor backlash.  Gone are the grinding and whirring noises of the gear drives used in most other telescope mountings.  Onlookers at NEAF were often seen pressing their ears close to the mountings just to see if they could hear the motors.

The spring loaded anti-backlash mechanism of the worm drives deliver near-zero backlash at the telescope.  The design of the worm support structure and large diameter precision tapered conical worm bearings result in a drive system with uncommon torsional rigidity, making the 10Micron mounts particularly adept at handling large refractors.  No wonder that TEC (Telescope Engineering Company) chose the GM2000 to demonstrate their long 8" f/8 refractors at star parties and shows.

The end result of all this careful engineering and execution are mounts that exceed expectations for rigidity and capacity.

Motors:

New generation AC servo brushless motors with fully integrated servomotor system: F.I.S. is a new technology in the field of total electronic integration for control, power, encoder and communications, all built-in to the motor's body.  The use of FIS has enabled the blazing fast slew speeds up up to 20deg per second.

Control System:

The electronics are housed in a separate control box which is easily removable. The connections to the motors and hand pad feature security lock screws.

The HPS control system also enables stand-alone operation through use of its ergonomic handpad, freeing the user from the requirement of having to always use an auxiliary PC to control the instrument.  Through the handpad, the stand-alone user can access all of the many integrated functions including; full Object Database, High-Precision Polar Alignment, Orthogonality Correction, Periodic Error Correction, as well as a Multi-Star Alignment which models and compensates for telescope pointing errors.  A GPS module is optionally available.

    Tracking Speeds:

    Sidereal, solar, lunar, custom, land mode.
    It is possible to set different speeds for the two axes’ for comet or satellite tracking (satellite tracking function included as standard feature of the HPS system).

    Object databases:

    Internal, complete catalogues: M, NGC, IC, PGC, UGC, SAO, BSC, HIP, HD, PPM, ADS, GCVS, PLANETS, ASTEROIDS, COMETS...all in memory.

    Operator interface: (No External PC Required!)

    Handpad Controller: the control system uses an ergonomic hand terminal to pilot the mount, to slew to objects, to set parameters, to sync a star, to change slew or guide speeds. Includes a numerical keypad with rapid search keys, and a red 2x16 character industrial illuminated display that operates over a wide range of ambient temperatures: +40°C / –20°C (-4°F). The extended brightness range accommodates both daylight and night time viewing. It’s a total communication interface between the mount and the operator. Handpad includes a removable protective cover.

    GPS:

    The controller includes a port for a GPS module (optional accessory). The system automatically links and adjusts itself to the GPS network date, time, and position.

    Connection to PC:

    The system can be controlled using the most common software packages by means of the LX200 protocol (same as Meade 16’’GPS), AP GTO protocol, or the proprietary 10Micron ASCOM (ie, prgrams such as The Sky, MaximDL, Desktop Universe, and Perseus).

    Furthermore, dedicated software (also included with the mount) can be used to create a “virtual hand pad” which exactly replicates the functions of the physical hand pad, allowing full remote access to all hand pad functions. The RS-232 port can also be used to control an external dome. This flexibility makes the GM2000HPS an ideal mount for observatories and remote automated observing sites. 

    Remote Operation and Connectivity:

    The HPS mounts provide a great deal of connecting options. While you may choose the traditional RS-232 connection to control the electronics up to 15 meters (50 ft) from an external PC, today you may prefer to dedicate it to directly controlling a computerized dome. The firmware will provide all the relevant computations even for mounts mounted off-center and instruments mounted with offset. The GPS port doubles as an additional RS-232 port, if you don’t use the GPS.

    But, the best way of connecting the mount to your PC is using the LAN connection, via TCP/IP, or the Wireless connection. The mount can connect to an existing WLAN, or it can be used as an hotspot to which your PC, tablet or smartphone can connect.  The mount can be controlled up to 100 meters (325 ft) from the PC with the LAN (Ethernet) connection using the included “virtual key pad” QCI software or with special custom made software using the 3490 port.  The system can be powered on /off remotely using an external switch.

    The system can be controlled through the LAN port, even remotely, by means of an Ethernet host server or by wireless links and Internet. Via LAN, the RS232 port can also be used to remotely control an external dome, without the need for a dedicated external PC.

    The LAN connection offers superior high-voltage tolerance with respect to the typical RS-232 connection; this is even better with the WLAN which is… wireless. In case of remote observatories, which are subject to lightning, this may make the difference between healthy electronics and a fried one!

    The mount supports up to ten simultaneous TCP/IP connections, so you can use different software, and also different devices, at the same time. 10micron provides an ASCOM driver for Windows, but if you want to implement your own control system, we provide the command set that can be used both on the RS-232, LAN and WLAN connections. The command set is largely LX200 compatible, but includes many more functions and operating modes. In remote operation, you will appreciate also the additional security provided by the absolute encoders: in no case you will lose your alignment, even in case of slipping clutches.

    Autoguider Interface:

    Single port standard SBIG and Starlight X-press interface: 6 contact standard phone jack (TTL).  It is possible to autoguide using the ST4-compatible port or through the serial/Ethernet connection, with a guide rate configurable from 0.1x to 1x. The guide rate can be automatically corrected for the declination of the target, so that there is no need to recalibrate the autoguide when observing at different declinations.

    Encoders:

    HPS has built-in motor encoders inside the motors which obtain a final resolution of 0.1 arcsec (GM4000) – 0.5 arcsec (GM2000) (minimum move size). The motor encoders are used together by the servo system along with the precision HPS absolute encoders to achieve the phenomenal tracking, pointing, and speed. Encoders maintain the position reference of the mount at every given moment, also after the system shutdown (park). Every time the system is switched on, it automatically initialize the motor’s soft homing of itself. Furthermore, the system can do a Hard Homing (with sensors) - GM4000 only.

    PEC correction:

    NO periodic error correction is necessary with the HPS system. Periodic error is less than 0.5arcsec native, no PEC needed.

    Special Functions

    Cord-wrap protection:

    The system takes into account the number of turns automatically and/or manually made by the axis and prevents their wrapping, de-winding them every time that the system slews to a new object.

    Meridian flip:

    The system automatically determines the ideal pointing position to avoid collision of the telescope with the base of the pier or tripod through the use of user-configurable parameters. The system allows pointing to an object up to 15 degrees past the meridian. This allows the user to point the telescope on the ‘wrong side of the meridian’ so that a meridian flip is not required in the middle of a long imaging session. The angle that the system will continue to track an object is user configurable up to a maximum of 30 degrees past the meridian.  In this way any object can be tracked for at least four hours.  The system may be set to permit pointing to objects up to 5 degrees below the horizon. Note: all limits are user configurable from 1° to max.

    Mount alignment functions:

    Alignment of the polar axis with Polaris: this procedure uses a star and Polaris to align the polar axis.

    • Two star calibration: when this procedure is performed, the mount uses the two stars to calculate the polar axis error and compensate for it.
    • Calibration with additional stars: Refine 2-stars, up to 100 stars! This function builds an internal pointing model for more precise pointing and compensation for telescope mis-alignments (including non-orthogonality), allowing for the correction of the classical polar alignment and conic errors, and also of the most important flexure terms of the optical tube. In this way it is possible to obtain pointing accuracies of the order of 20 arcseconds RMS. The same model can be used in order to obtain the maximum tracking accuracy, compensating also for the atmospheric refraction (depending on the local atmospheric pressure and temperature).
    • No PC required!
    • 3-stars alignment: direct 3-star alignment (used to find some stars in a limited viewable-area sky condition)

    Alignment of the polar axis without Polaris:

    The “Polar Align” function is used to accurately align (to under 1 arcmin) the polar axis of the mount to the celestial pole without use of a polar finderscope. Polaris is not required to be visible. 

    Orthogonality error correction:

    The” Ortho Align” function is used to help you to correct the mechanical orthogonality error of the instrument.

    Align info:

    This function shows the alignment information. A short text will appear and tell you the type of alignment used (no alignment, 2‑stars, 3 or more stars if you have used additional stars) If a 2‑stars 3 or more alignment has been completed, the system shows an estimation of the polar axis position error:

    • An estimation of the polar axis position error and its position angle relative to the celestial pole plus information how to correct errors operating directly on azimuth and altitude knobs.
    • An estimation of the orthogonality error between the optical axis and the declination axis. This function is useful to verify that the telescope is really orthogonal to the declination axis.
    • A list of the aligned stars and date of the saved alignment.

    Automatic tracking “follow objects”:

    With this function, the system will automatically set a custom tracking rate in both axes each time it slews to an object, in order to follow it through the stars. Solar system objects can be tracked so that their motion is compensated with respect to the stars. You may load orbital elements of comets, asteroids and even artificial satellites into the mount, so that these objects can be tracked directly using the hand pad (without any external PC).

    Visible Object filter: (comets and asteroids)

    When you activate this function, the system will ask to you to define a magnitude limit in order to create the observable objects list.

    Multiple Instrument Support:

    The HPS mounts feature a rich system of accessories for mounting various instruments. Even multiple instruments can be mounted on a single mount, in order to have the right imaging equipment always ready. Since the pointing and tracking model depends on the specific instrument (the flexure is different), the mount allows for different models, one for each instrument, that can be saved in the internal memory and reloaded when required.

    Observatory Use:

    The mount can be switched on and off using the dedicated connector on the control box panel. You can use the electronic balance functions in order to balance your instrument without unlocking the clutches. The mount can be parked in different user-defined positions. An external dome can be controlled directly using the RS-232 serial port, avoiding the need of using a dedicated external PC. Once configured with your instrument parameters, the firmware is able to make all the calculations required for positioning the dome slit in front of your optical tube, for almost all instrument configurations.

    Specifications

    RA/DEC Axes

    Axes Diameters, RA and DEC 2" (50mm) Diameter
    Material Alloy Steel (3X stiffness of Aluminum)
    Bearings Multiple Roller Conical, Preloaded
       

    Worm Gearing

    Worm Wheel, RA and DEC 6.8" (172mm) Diameter, 215 Tooth
    Material Bronze B14, aluminum body
    Worms 0.95" (24mm) Diameter, Tempered Alloy Steel, Ground and Lapped
    Backlash Control Near-Zero, Spring-loaded Worm (rigidly supported)
       

    Motors/Control

    Motors AC Servo Brushless, F.I.S.
    Power Supply 24V DC
    Power Consumption 0.7A @ sidereal rate, 3A @ max speed, 5A Peak
    Control System HPS
    Guide Speed 0.5X
    Go-To Speed 20°/sec max.
    Pointing Precision 3' typical with just polar alignment
    SW Pointing Precision < 20" with internal 25 star mapping
    Tracking Precision

    1 arcsec peak-peak (typical 15 minutes), 0.6 arcsec RMS

    (w/ internal 25 - stars software mapping and compensation of flexure and polar alignment errors)

    Communication Ports RS-232, GPS port, autoguide ST-4 protocol port, Ethernet 10/100/1000 Port.  WiFi included.
       

    General

    Weight

    73 lbs (33 kg) total, mount head only

    Capacity 110 lbs (50 kg)
    Security Stop +/− 30° past meridian in r.a. (software) +/− 45° past meridian in r.a. (mechanical)
    Latitude Range 20° - 70°, fine adjustment with altitude knob
    Azimuth Adjustment ± 10°, fine adjustable with double screws
    Counterweight Shaft 1.6" (40 mm) diameter stainless steel, 9 lb (4 kg)
    Counterweights (optional) 13.2 lb (6 kg) and 26.2 lb (12 kg), stainless steel, no-mar locking
    Polar Alignment Scope NO polar alignment scope required - extremely accurate software alignment routines eliminate the need for a polar alignment scope.
    Operating Temperature (standard) - 15° C to + 35° C
    + 05° F to + 95° F
    Storage Temperature (standard) - 40° C to + 50° C
    - 40° F to +122° F
    Special Operating Temperature Range (Optional) Optional, for very low temperature operations (to -35°C); see options for more details
    Included Items
    • GM2000 HPS II Monolith Mount with built-in precision absolute axis-encoders
    • Control box with onboard-intelligence (Linux-processor), stand alone system ( no PC required , V. 2 – HPS version firmware
    • Professional handcontrol unit with graphic display and temperature control
    • Cables
    • Counterweight bar
    • Pier adapter for tripod / column
    • Strong  transport carton-box with shaped rigid foam
    • Allen key set
    • WiFi option included

    Important Notes:

    • Counterweights and power supply are not supplied as standard with this package.
    • All 10 Micron mounts can ONLY be used with approved power supplies from our price list. Damage caused by using third party power supplies can result in loss of warranty!

     

    Documents

    For a detailed brochure on the GM2000 HPS, please click on the link below: (3.4MB pdf)

     

    GM2000 HPS Accessories Diagram (1 MB pdf)

     

     GM2000 HPS Dimensions (1MB pdf)

     

    HPS Mounts Comparison Chart (3.5MB pdf)

     

    HPS Mounts Scale View (700 KB pdf)